AskDefine | Define hypochlorite

Dictionary Definition

hypochlorite n : any salt or ester of hypochlorous acid

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Noun

  1. any salt of hypochlorous acid; used as a household bleach

Translations

Extensive Definition

The hypochlorite(I) ion is ClO−. A chlorite(I) compound is a chemical compound containing this group, with chlorine in oxidation state +1.
Chlorites(I) are the salts of hypochlorous acid. Common examples include sodium hypochlorite (chlorine bleach or bleaching agent) and calcium hypochlorite (bleaching powder). Hypochlorites are frequently quite unstable — for example, sodium hypochlorite(I) is not available as a solid, since removal of the water from NaClO solution converts it to a mixture of sodium chloride and sodium chlorate. Heating of NaClO solution also causes this reaction. Chlorites(I) decompose in sunlight, giving chlorides and oxygen.
Due to their low stability, chlorites(I) are very strong oxidizing agents. They react with many organic and inorganic compounds. Reaction with organic compounds is very exothermic and may cause ignition, so chlorites(I) should be handled with care. They can oxidize manganese compounds, converting them to permanganates.

Strength of oxidation

Chlorate(I) is the strongest oxidizer of the generalized chlorates. It is also the least stable.

Stability

Many chlorate(I) compounds exist only in solution, and are nonexistent in a pure form, as is chloric(I) acid itself.
Besides oxidizing almost any reducing agent, chlorate(I) is unstable with respect to disproportionation (that is, it will oxidize itself); chlorate(I) will often degrade to some mixture of chloride and chlorate, especially if not kept cool.
hypochlorite in German: Hypochlorit
hypochlorite in French: Hypochlorite
hypochlorite in Italian: Ipoclorito
hypochlorite in Portuguese: Hipoclorito
hypochlorite in Russian: Гипохлориты
hypochlorite in Ukrainian: Гіпохлорити
hypochlorite in Chinese: 次氯酸盐
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